University Distinguished Service Professor of Urology
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Chronologic listing of major original scientific contributions of Patrick C. Walsh. M.D.
- First description of the 5 a -reductase enzyme deficiency. Walsh, et al: N. Engl. J. Med.291:944-949, 1974. This pioneering paper established the embryologic and physiological consequences of dihydrotestosterone deficiency in man and provided the framework for the development of potent 5 a -reductase inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Experimental induction of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the dog. Walsh, P.C. & Wilson, J.D.: J. Clin. Invest. 57:1093-1097, 1976. This paper demonstrated for the first time that benign prostatic hyperplasia could be induced in the castrated dog by hormones. Furthermore, it demonstrated for the first time the powerful synergistic effect on the prostate of combination treatment with a potent 5?-reduced androgen (androstanediol) plus estradiol. This paper provided the first scientific evidence that estrogen may synergize with androgen in the induction of BPH.
- Nuclear localization of androgen receptors in the prostate. Menon, et al, J. Clin. Invest. 61:150-162, 1978. This paper for the first time demonstrated the predominant nuclear localization of the androgen receptor in the human prostate; previously studies had focused on the cytoplasm.
- Identification of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a major cause of congenital microphallus. Walsh, P.C. et al. J. Urol. 120:90-95, 1978. This is one of the first papers to identify congenital microphallus as an early clinical manifestation of Kallmann's syndrome.
- Anatomical surgical approach to the management of the dorsal vein complex during radical retropubic surgery. Reiner, W.G., Walsh, P.C.: J. Urol. 121:198-200, 1979. An anatomical approach to management of the dorsal vein complex during retropubic surgery resulting in reduced blood loss.
- Balloon occlusion of varicoceles. Walsh, P.C., White, R.I., Jr., JAMA 246:1701-1702, 1981. The use of detachable balloons as a non-invasive means for the treatment of varicoceles.
- The first classification of stage A prostate cancer based upon prognosis. Cantrell, B.B., et al. J. Urol. 125:516-520, 1981. The first recognition that tumor volume (> or < 5%) has important prognostic significance in the progression of stage A prostate cancer. This provided the first sound basis for separation of stage A1 from A2 disease.
- Identification of autosomal dominant inheritance of Peyronie's disease. Bias, W.B., et al, Am. J. Genetics 12:227-235, 1982.
- Anatomical description of the anatomy of the pelvic plexus and surgical technique to prevent impotence during radical pelvic surgery. Walsh, P.C., Donker, P.J.: J. Urol. 128:492-497, 1982.
- Description of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for preservation of sexual function. Walsh, P.C. et al: Prostate 4:473-485, 1983.
- The technique of cystoprostatectomy for preservation of sexual function. Walsh, P.C., Mostwin, J.L.: Brit. J. Urol. 56:694-697, 1984.
- The first demonstration of the influence of reversible androgen deprivation on BPH. Peters, C.A., Walsh, P.C.: N. Engl. J. Med. 317:599-604, 1987.
- The first description of wide excision of the neurovascular bundle. Walsh, P.C., et al. J. Urol. 138:823-827, 1987.
- The use of the rat as a model for the study of penile erection. Quinlan, D.M., et al: J. Urol. 141:656-661, 1989.
- The experimental use of cavernous nerve grafts to restore erectile function. Quinlan, D.M., et al.: J. Urol. 145:380-383, 1991.
- Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer. Carter, B.S., et al.: Proceedings Nat. Acad. Science 89:3367-3371, 1992. The first demonstration of hereditary prostate cancer. Recognition of this important syndrome may lead to insight into the genetic mechanisms responsible for prostate cancer.
- The value of longitudinal measurements of prostate specific antigen levels in the detection of prostate cancer. Carter, H.B. et al.: JAMA 267:2215-2220, 1992. The first demonstration that serial measurements of PSA distinguishes prostate cancer from BPH.
- The first characterization of hereditary prostate cancer. Carter, et al. J. Urol. 150:797-802, 1993. The first publication to derive an operational definition of hereditary prostate cancer identifying this as a relatively prostate site specific disorder. The operational definition can be used for clinical purposes and for the development of linkage strategies to identify the gene.
- First demonstration of superior cancer control following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy. Partin, et al. Urol. Clinics of N. Amer. 20:713-725, 1993. Evidence that an anatomical approach to radical prostatectomy not only reduces morbidity but provides excellent cancer control at 10 years.
- "The Prostate - A Guide for Men and the Women Who Love Them" Patrick C. Walsh and Janet F. Worthington, Johns Hopkins Press, 322 pages, 1995. This book was written with the philosophy that knowledge is power. Although it covers all prostatic diseases, it focuses primarily on prostate cancer. It was written for the well educated patient with prostate disease and his family to allow them to make a thorough and educated decision about the management of these diseases.
- First demonstration of linkage for a major susceptibility locus for prostate cancer. Smith, et al. Science 274:1371-1374, 1996. This study identified the location of the first major gene that predisposes men to prostate cancer on chromosome 1 (1q 24-25). This contribution was made possible by the availability of the 2,500 families with hereditary prostate cancer collected by Dr. Walsh, the extensive background in the molecular genetics of prostate cancer by Dr. William Isaacs, and the phenomenal resources for linkage analysis provided by Drs. Collins and Trent.
- Demonstration of linkage to a second major susceptibility locus for prostate cancer on the X chromosome. Xu, J., et al. Nature Genetics 20:175-179, 1998. In addition to the contributors listed above, families provided by investigators from Sweden, Finland, and the Mayo Clinic were instrumental in this discovery.
- Characterization of the natural history of prostate cancer progression in men who develop an elevated PSA following radical prostatectomy. The first algorithm for identification of patients who are at high or low risk for the development of metastatic disease that will be useful in stratifying patients for clinical trials and/or clinical management.
- >The use of intraoperative video documentation to improve sexual function after radical prostatectomy. Walsh, P.C., et al. UROLOGY 55:62-67, 2000. This represents the first prospective use of intraoperative video documentation and correlation with patient outcome to improve any surgical technique.
- Dr. Patrick Walsh’s Guide to Surviving Prostate Cancer” Patrick C. Walsh and Janet F. Worthington, Warner Books, 462 pages, 2001.
- Walsh, P.C., Garcia, J.R., Jr., Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: A Detailed Description of the Surgical Technique, DVD 2004. http://urology.jhu.edu/