Urology at Hopkins has developed with a
"a heritage of excellence"
and continues
to aspire to excellence
1904
Simple Perineal Prostatectomy for Benign Disease
At a time when open simple prostatectomy had a 20-percent mortality, Hugh Hampton Young developed specialized instruments and perfected the perineal approach, reducing mortality to 2 percent.
1904
Radical Prostatectomy for the Cure of Cancer
Hugh Hampton Young. Based on observations from performing simple prostatectomies, Young realized that it was possible to remove the entire organ. This was the beginning of an era of surgical management that continues to the present.
1913
Transurethral Prostatectomy
Hugh Hampton Young's "punch" procedure was the first endoscopic surgical procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement and the precursor of the modern transurethral prostatectomy.
1917
Founding of the Journal of Urology
Hugh Hampton Young. The American Urological Association absorbed the Journal in 1921 and it became the AUA’s official scientific publication. For the next seven decades, all of the editors were Brady faculty or prior trainees: Hugh H. Young (1917–1945); J. A. Campbell Colston (1946–1965); Hugh J. Jewett (1966–1977); William W. Scott (1977–1983); Herbert Brendler (1983–1985); and John T. Grayhack (1985–1994).
1917
Interstitial Radiotherapy
Hugh Hampton Young was among the first to administer interstitial radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate and bladder cancer.
1929
Posterior Urethral Valves
Hugh Hampton Young was among the first to clinically recognize, name and classify posterior urethral valves in children.
1946
Clinical Staging of Bladder Cancer
Hugh J. Jewett developed the first clinical staging of bladder cancer, created the basis for our modern-day staging of bladder cancer and developed a prognostic model that could be easily shared among physicians and patients.
1948
Research as an Integral Part of the Brady Residency
William Wallace Scott pioneered the first mandatory year of research during the urology residency, revolutionizing academic urology by creating surgeon/scientists.
1975
Discovery of Nuclear Matrix Protein
Donald S. Coffey. Isolation and recognition of a substructure to the mammalian cell nucleus (the nuclear matrix) that organizes genome functions into discrete regions. Figure from JAMA; 2006;296(4):445-448
1977
Functional reconstruction for bladder exstrophy
Robert D. Jeffs’s surgical approach to treating bladder exstrophy revolutionized the field, where urinary diversion was the standard treatment. Johns Hopkins remains the worldwide leader in the treatment of bladder exstrophy.
1979
Anatomy and surgical technique for control of the dorsal vein complex
Patrick Craig Walsh. Before this discovery and change in surgical technique, radical retropubic prostatectomy was often associated with life-threatening hemorrhage. Based on these anatomic observations, a technique for ligation and division of the dorsal vein complex made it possible to perform surgery under direct vision, resulting in a safer, more complete cancer operation. Postoperative mortality fell from 2 percent to 0.2 percent.
1981
Discovery of the Cavernous Nerves
Patrick C. Walsh and Pieter J . Donker. Prior to this discovery, all men who underwent a radical prostatectomy were impotent. However, this study demonstrated the location of the cavernous nerves, which was previously unknown. Because the cavernous nerves were shown to be outside the prostate, this study provided the basis for a surgical technique for their preservation.
1982
First purposeful nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy
Patrick Craig Walsh. Based on recognition that the capsular arteries and veins of the prostate (neurovascular bundle) provided the intraoperative landmark for identification of the microscopic cavernous nerves, and characterization of the fascial coverings of the prostate, a surgical technique was described that preserved sexual function.
1984
Mapping of alpha-1 adrenoreceptors in the prostate
Herbert Lepor and Ellen Shapiro. The detection and characterization of adrenergic receptors in the prostate provided the foundation for a radically different approach to benign prostatic hyperplasia management, and served to engage techniques, experimental approaches, and expertise common in the neurosciences for urologic research.
1984
The first use of hypothermia and circulatory arrest for the excision of renal cell carcinoma tumor thrombus above the diaphragm and into the right atrium
Fray Francis Marshall. This pioneering procedure made it possible for the first time to remove these extensive tumors more safely and more completely.
1992
First proof that familial aggregation of prostate cancer had a genetic basis
This ushered in technologies and paradigms of molecular genetics to the prostate cancer field.
1992
Discriminating the Role of Nitric Oxide in Penile Erection
Arthur L Burnett identifies and documents nitric oxide as a physiologic mediator and neurotransmitter of erectile function.
1993
Preoperative Nomogram to Predict Pathologic Stage - The Partin Tables
Based on three findings – Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA – this nomogram made it possible for the first time preoperatively to predict what the pathologic stage would be after the prostate had been removed, i.e. the probability of cure.
1994
Prediction of Insignificant Tumor
The first criteria to identify ideal candidates for expectant management.
1995
Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN).
Developed by a transplant surgeon, Lloyd Ratner, and a Brady urologist, Louis Kavoussi. This new advance had a profound impact on the field of transplantation. Compared to the standard open surgical approach, LDN results in less postoperative surgical pain, a shorter hospital stay, and quicker recovery. Consequently, the availability of this less- invasive surgical technique enhanced the willingness of family and friends to donate.
Figure from the New England Journal of Medicine, 2012; 366,141-9.
2012
HOXB13 Mutation: first mutation responsible for increased risk of prostate cancer in families.
Campbell's Textbook of Urology
Patrick C. Walsh. Walsh was Editor-in-Chief from 1986-2002 (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th editions), during which time it expanded to encompass four volumes and 4,000 pages, becoming the definitive Urology textbook in the world. In recognition for his efforts, the book was renamed Campbell-Walsh Urology. Alan Partin has been an editor since 2002.
21 January 2015
BRADY CENTENNIAL
The Brady Urological Institute, given through the generosity of the James Buchanan Brady,

opened January 21,1915
IMAGE GALLERY
1897-1941
Hugh H. Young
Young performed the first perineal prostatectomy at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1927. IMAGE GALLERY
1946-1974
William W. Scott
During his tenure, Scott gave 15 named lectures and participated in some 25 visiting professorships. IMAGE GALLERY
1974-2004
Patrick C. Walsh
Dr. Walsh is best known for "the anatomic approach to radical prostatectomy". IMAGE GALLERY
2004-Present
Alan W. Partin
Dr. Partin is best known for developing The Partin Tables IMAGE GALLERY

1905

Conservative Perineal Prostatectomy

The Early Diagnosis and Radical Cure of Carcinome of the Prostate

1913

A New Procedure (PUNCH OPERATION) for small prostatic bars and contracture of the prostatic orifice

1917

The use of radium and the punch operation in desperate cases of enlarged prostate

1918

The employment of the high frequency current for the extraction of calculi incarcerated in the lower end of the ureter

1919

A new germicide for use in the genito-urinary tract: "mercurochrome-220"

1920

Observations on gun-shot wounds of the urethra

1921

Physiological and pharmacological studies of the prostate gland

1922

An operation for the cure of incontinence associated with espispadias

1923

The treatment of septicemia and local infections

1924

Secondary closure of tuberculous nephrectomy wounds

1925

Presentation of preoperative skin desinfectant - an alcohol- acetone-aqueous solution of mercurochrome

1926

Deep roentgen-ray therapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the bladder

1928

Vas ligation for the prevention of preoperative and post-operative epididymitis

1930

Medical Aspects of the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy

1931

A radical operation for the cure of cancer of the penis

1932

Carcinoma of the prostate, a clinical and pathological study

1934

Radiation Therapy of renal cortical neoplasms

1935

Bladder abnormalities due to injury of motor pathways in the nervous system

1937

The use of sulfanilamide in gonococcic infections

1938

Hypertension in unilateral renal disease

1939

Clinical experiments with androgens

1940

Stenosis of the ureteropelvic juncture: congenital and acquired

1941

Postoperative venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

1943

Carcinoma of the prostate

1944

The excretion of 07- ketosteroids in carcinoma of the prostate

1945

Treatment of bladder dysfunction after neurologic trauma

1946

Infiltrating carcinoma of the bladder: relation of depth of penetration of the bladder wall to dence of local extension and metastases

1947

Endocrine therapy in carcinoma of the prostate

1948

A new concept in the treatment of peynorie's diseases

1949

Xylocaine: a new topical anesthetic in urology

1950

Prostatic cancer

1951

Renal trauma: a study of 71 cases

1952

Infiltrating carcinoma of the bladder

1953

What makes the prostate grow

1954

Renal homotransplantation: I The effect of cortisone on the transplant; II The effect of the transplant on the host

1955

Operation for tumor of a solitary kidney

1956

Significance of the palpable prostatic nodule

1957

Steroid response to therapy in prostatic cancer

1958

The surgical treatment of carcinoma of the bladder

1959

Radical Prostatectomy for early cancer

1960

Carcinoma of the bladder: characteristic modes of local invasion

1961

Functional charactersitics of renovascular hypertension

1962

Hypophysectomy for disseminated prostatic cancer

1963

Radiographic evaluation of the bladder neck in childhood

1964

The effect of hypothermia upon respiration and anaerobic glycolysis of dog kidney

1965

Androgenic Control of Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis in Male Accessory Genital Organs

Under Construction

1971

Androgenic Control of Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis in Male Accessory Genital Organs

1971

Effects of Polyinosinic Acid and Polycytidylic Acid on the Deoxyribonucleic Acid Template Activity of Isolated Nuclei and Soluble Chromatin from Rat Liver

1972

Effects of Polyinosinic Acid and Polycytidylic Acid on the Deoxyribonucleic Acid Template Activity of Isolated Nuclei and Soluble Chromatin from Rat Liver

1973

Bladder exstrophy: Vesicoplasty or urinary diversion?

1974

Permanent urinary diversion in childhood

1975

Nuclear Protein Matrix: Association with Newly Synthesized DNA

1976

The Induction of Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Dog with Androstanediol

1978

Characterization of the Binding of a Potent Synthetic Androgen, Methyltrienolone, to Human Tissues

1979

Comparison of spontaneous and experimentally induced canine prostatic hyperplasia

1980

Supercoiled loops and eucaryotic DNA replication

1980

A fixed site of DNA replication in eucaryotic cells

1981

Pathological factors that influence prognosis in stage A prostatic cancer: the influence of extent versus grade

Genetic Instability Coupled to Clonal Selection as a Mechanism for Tumor Progression in the Dunning R-3327 Rat Prostatic Adenocarcinoma System

1982

Impotence following radical prostatectomy: insight into etiology and prevention

1983

Radical prostatectomy with preservation of sexual function: anatomical and pathological considerations

1986

Establishment and characterization of seven Dunning rat prostatic cancer cell lines and their use in developing methods for predicting metastatic abilities of prostatic cancers.

1986

Newly replicated DNA is associated with DNA topoisomerase II in cultured rat prostatic adenocarcinoma cells

1988

Activation of programmed cell death in the rat ventral prostate after castration

1989

Etiology and disease process of benign prostatic hyperplasia

1990

Allelic loss of chromosomes 16q and 10q in human prostate cancer

Programmed Cell Death during Regression of PC-82 Human Prostate Cancer following Androgen Ablation

1992

Longitudinal Evaluation of Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Men With and Without Prostate Disease

Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediator of penile erection.

Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer

The Effect of Finasteride in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1994

Pathologic and Clinical Findings to Predict Tumor Extent of Nonpalpable(Stage T1 c) Prostate Cancer

The Role of Calcium, pH, and Cell Proliferation in the Programmed (Apoptotic) Death of Androgen-independent Prostatic Cancer Cells Induced by Thapsigargin

Cytidine methylation of regulatory sequences near the a-class glutathione S-transferase gene accompanies human prostatic carcinogenesis

1995

KAI1, a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer on human chromosome

Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy

1996

Major Susceptibility Locus for Prostate Cancer on Chromosome 1 Suggested by a Genome-Wide Search

Telomerase Activity: A Prevalent Marker of Malignant Human Prostate Tissue

1997

Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA)CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells

Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells

Specific and Efficient Peptide Substrates for Assaying the Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-specific Antigen

Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells

1998

Use of the Percentage of Free Prostate-Specific Antigen to Enhance Differentiation of Prostate Cancer From Benign Prostatic Disease

ANALYSIS OF PERCENT FREE PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) FOR PROSTATE CANCER DETECTION: INFLUENCE OF TOTAL PSA, PROSTATE VOLUME, AND AGE

1999

Natural History of Progression After PSA Elevation Following Radical Prostatectomy

Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy of the Prostate Implications for Prostatic Carcinogenesis

Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Prostate Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Using ex Vivo Gene Transfer

Overexpression of Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α in Common Human Cancers and Their Metastases

2000

Comparative Efficiency of Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer Detection

2001

Human Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Molecular Dissection by Gene Expression Profiling

A Phase I Trial of CV706, a Replication-competent, PSA Selective Oncolytic Adenovirus, for the Treatment of Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer following Radiation Therapy

2002

α-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase: A New Molecular Marker for Prostate Cancer

Identification and Characterization of Nuclease-stabilized RNA Molecules That Bind Human Prostate Cancer Cells via the Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen

Telomere Shortening Is an Early Somatic DNA Alteration in Human Prostate Tumorigenesis

2003

Prostate-Specific Antigen-Activated Thapsigargin Prodrug as Targeted Therapy for Prostate Cancer

2004

Docetaxel plus Prednisone or Mitoxantrone plus Prednisone for Advanced Prostate Cancer

2005

Phosphodiesterase-5A dysregulation in penile erectile tissue is a mechanism of priapism

Androgen ablation mitigates tolerance to a prostate/prostate cancer-restricted antigen

The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology(ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma

Risk of Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality Following Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

2006

Germ-Line Mutation of NKX3.1 Cosegregates with Hereditary Prostate Cancer and Alters the Homeodomain Structure and Function

2007

A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

2008

Nuclear MYC protein overexpression is an early alteration in human prostate carcinogenesis

A Molecular Analysis of Prokaryotic and Viral DNA Sequences in ProstateTissue From Patients With Prostate Cancer Indicates the Presence of Multiple and Diverse Microorganisms

Prostate Cancer–Specific Survival Following Salvage Radiotherapy vs Observation in Men With Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

Cumulative Association of Five Genetic Variants with Prostate Cancer

2009

Ligand-independent Androgen Receptor Variants Derived from Splicing of Cryptic Exons Signify Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

Copy Number Analysis Indicates Monoclonal Origin of Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer

miR-21: An androgen receptor regulated microRNA which promotes hormone dependent and independent prostate cancer growth

Acute inflammatory proteins constitute the organic matrix of prostatic corpora amylacea and calculi in men with prostate cancer

2010

Androgen-induced TOP2B mediated double strand breaks and prostate cancer gene rearrangements

2011

PTEN Protein Loss by Immunostaining: Analytic Validation and Prognostic Indicator for a High Risk Surgical Cohort of Prostate Cancer Patients

2012

Germline Mutations in HOXB13 and Prostate Cancer Risk

African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

2013

Tracking the clonal origin of lethal prostate cancer

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