Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D.

Professor of Urology, Epidemiology, Oncology, Environmental Health
Director, Division of Epidemiology

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

600 N. Wolfe St. , Jefferson Street. Bldg, Rm. 149, Baltimore, MD 21287-8915

Appointments: 410-502-2773

Email: btrock@jhmi.edu

Fax: 410-614-8096


 Current Research Activities

  • Principal investigator of a multi-center study among 5 prostate cancer SPORE centers to identify biomarkers that can be measured on prostate biopsies with low Gleason grade (men considering active surveillance or watchful waiting) to indicate the presence of unsuspected high grade tumor in the prostate.  The goal is to improve our ability to determine which men with prostate cancer can safely be managed with active surveillance rather than treatment.

  • Principal Investigator of a multi-center study among 11 prostate cancer SPORE centers to conduct rigorous prospective evaluation of eight of the most promising prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

  • Evaluate the role of oxidative stress as a risk factor for prostate cancer, and whether it is mediated by diet and/or genes involved in generation of or response to oxidative damage.

  • Evaluate the influence of diet/nutritional supplements and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress on progression (worsening) of tumors in prostate cancer patients being followed in a program of  active surveillance as an alternative to treatment.

  • Characterizing the senescent phenotype in prostate cancer, and its relation to aging, diet, and oxidative stress.

  • Mathematical carcinogenesis models and inference in prostate cancer subgroups.

  • Methodologic problems associated with use of biomarkers for chemoprevention and prognosis.
Free Access to abstracts at PubMed

  Selected Publications (out of 132)

  1. Clark WH, Elder DE, Guerry D, Braitman LE, Trock BJ, Schultz D, Synnestvedt M, Halpern AC. A model predicting survival in Stage I melanoma based upon tumor progression and multivariable logistic regression.  JNCI 81: 1893-1904, 1989.

  2. Trock BJ, Lanza E, Greenwald P: Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer:  Critical review and meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence.  J Nat Cancer Inst 82: 650-661, 1990.

  3. Trock BJ.  Application of biomarkers in cancer environmental epidemiology.  Toxicology 1995; 101:93-98.

  4. Trock BJ.  Breast cancer in African American women: epidemiology and tumor biology.  Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 1996; 40:11-24.

  5. Dickson RB, Low JA, Johnson MD, Hawkins MJ, Trock BJ.  Blood-borne indicators of breast cancer and their use in experimental, medical oncologic, and prevention studies.  The Breast 1996; 5:379-384.

  6. Trock BJ, Leonessa F, Clarke R.  Multidrug resistance in breast cancer A meta-analysis of MDR1/gp170 expression and its possible functional significance.  J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89:917-931.

  7. Hayes DF, Trock B, Harris AL.  Assessing the clinical impact of prognostic factors:  when is "statistically significant" clinically useful.  Breast Cancer Res Treat 1998;52:305‑19.

  8. Deming SL, Nass SJ, Dickson RB, Trock BJ.  C-myc amplification in breast cancer:  a meta-analysis of its occurrence and prognostic relevance.  Br J Cancer 2000; 83:1688-95.

  9. Clarke R, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Trock B.  Breast cancer:  Dietary and environmental oestrogens.  Biologist 2001; 48:21-26.

  10. Trock BJ.  Validation of surrogate endpoint biomarkers in prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. Urology 2001; 57(4 Suppl 1):241-7.

  11. Wulfkuhle JD, McLean KC, Paweletz CP, Sgroi DC, Trock BJ, Steeg PS, Petricoin EF 3rd.  New approaches to proteomic analysis of breast cancer.  Proteomics 2001;1:1205-15.

  12. Paweletz CP, Trock B, Pennanen M, Tsangaris T, Magnant C, Liotta LA, Petricoin EF 3rd.  Proteomic patterns of nipple aspirate fluids obtained by SELDI-TOF: potential for new biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer.  Dis Markers 2001;17(4):301-7.

  13. Gonzalgo ML, Eisenberger CF, Lee SM, Trock BJ, Marshall FF, Hortopan S, Sidransky D, Schoenberg MP. Prognostic significance of preoperative of molecular serum analysis renal cancer.  Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8(6):1878-81
  14. Gretzer MB, Trock BJ, Han M, Walsh PC.  A critical analysis of the interpretation of biochemical failure in surgically treated patients using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (ASTRO) criteria.  J Urol 2002; 68:1419-1422.

  15. Gonzalgo ML, Brotzman M, Trock BJ, Geringer AM, Burnett AL, Jarow JP.  Clinical efficacy of sildenafil citrate and predictors of long-term response. J Urol 2003; 170(2 Pt 1):503-6.

  16. Johnson MD, Kenney N, Stoica A, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Singh B, Chepko G, Clarke R, Sholler PF, Lirio AA, Foss C, Reiter R, Trock B, Paik S, Martin MB.   Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland.  Nat Med 2003; 9:1081-4.

  17. Trock BJ, Brotzman M, Utz WJ, Ugarte RR, Kaplan SA, Larson TR, Blute ML, Roehrborn CG, Partin AW.  Long-term pooled analysis of multicenter studies of cooled thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia results at three months through four years.  Urology 2004; 63:716-21.

  18. Freedland SJ, Aronson WJ, Presti JC Jr. , Amling CL, Terris MK, Trock B, Kane CJ.  Predictors of PSA progression among men with seminal vesicle invasion at the time of radical prostatectomy. Cancer 2004; 100:1633-8.

  19. Rogers CG, Trock B, Walsh PC.  Preservation of accessory pudendal arteries during radical retropubic prostatectomy: surgical technique and results.  Urology 2004; 64:148-51.

  20. Freedland SJ, Terris MK, Presti JC Jr, Amling CL, Kane CJ, Trock B, Aronson WJ.  Obesity and biochemical outcome following radical prostatectomy for organ confined disease with negative surgical margins.  J Urol 2004; 172:520-4.

  21. Palapattu GS, Allaf ME, Trock BJ, Epstein JI, Walsh PC.  Prostate specific antigen progression in men with lymph node metastases following radical prostatectomy: results of long- term follow-up.   J Urol 2004; 172:1860-4.

  22. Allaf ME, Palapattu GS, Trock BJ, Epstein JI, Walsh PC.  Anatomical extent of lymph node dissection at the time of radical prostatectomy: impact on PSA progression.  J Urol 2004; 172:1840-4.

  23. Stearns V, Coop A,  Singh B, Gallagher A, Yamauchi Y, Lieberman R, Pennanen M, Trock B, Hayes DF, Ellis MJ.  A pilot surrogate endpoint biomarker trial of perillyl alcohol (POH) in breast neoplasia.  Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10:7583-7591.

  24. Stearns V, Gallagher A, Kleer CG, Singh B, Freedman M, Haddad BR, Isaacs C, Warren R,     Brown M, Cullen J, Trock B, Hayes DF.  A pilot study to establish a clinical model to perform phase II studies of breast cancer chemopreventive agents in women at high risk with biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for activity. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10:8332-8340.

  25. Tsuzuki T, Hernandez DJ, Aydin H, Trock B, Walsh PC, Epstein JI. Prediction of extraprostatic extension in the neurovascular bundle based on prostate needle biopsy pathology, serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination.  J Urol 2005; 173:450-3.

  26. Iyengar P, Espina V, Williams TW, Lin Y, Berry D, Jelicks LA, Lee H, Temple K, Graves R, Pollard J, Chopra N, Russell RG, Sasisekharan R, Trock BJ, Lippman M, Calvert VS, Petricoin EF 3rd, Liotta L, Dadachova E, Pestell RG, Lisanti MP, Bonaldo P, Scherer PE.  Adipocyte-derived collagen VI affects early mammary tumor progression in vivo, demonstrating a critical interaction in the tumor/stroma microenvironment.  J Clin Invest 2005; 115:1163-76.

  27. Petricoin EF 3rd, Bichsel VE, Calvert VS, Espina V, Winters M, Young L, Belluco C, Trock BJ, Lippman M, Fishman DA, Sgroi DC, Munson PJ, Esserman LJ, Liotta LA. Mapping molecular networks using proteomics: a vision for patient-tailored combination therapy.  J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23:3614-21.

  28. Bastian PJ, Palapattu GS, Lin X, Yegnasubramanian S, Mangold LA, Trock B, Eisenberger MA, Partin AW, Nelson WG. Preoperative serum DNA GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation and the risk of early prostate-specific antigen recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:4037-43.

  29. Trock B.  Invited editorial comment re:  Screening with prostate specific antigen and metastatic prostate cancer risk:  a population based case-control study.  J Urol 2005;174:499.

  30. Clarke R, Leonessa F, Trock B.  Multidrug resistance/p-glycoprotein and breast cancer:  review and meta-analysis.  Seminars in Oncol 2005; 32(6 Suppl 7):S9-15.

  31. Warlick C, Trock BJ, Landis P, Epstein JI, Carter HB. Delayed versus immediate surgical intervention and prostate cancer outcome.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:355-7.

  32. Trock B, Clarke R,  Hilakivi-Clarke L.  Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:459-471.

  33. Prowell TM, Stearns V, Trock B. Lipophilic statins merit additional study for breast cancer chemoprevention.  J Clin Oncol 2006; 24:2128-9.

  34. Carter HB, Ferrucci L, Kettermann A, Landis P, Wright EJ, Epstein JI, Trock BJ, Metter EJ.  Detection of life-threatening prostate cancer with PSA velocity during a window of curability.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:1521-1527.

  35. Parsons JK, Partin AW, Trock B, Bruzek DJ, Cheli C, Sokoll LJ.  Complexed prostate-specific antigen for the diagnosis of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.  BJU Int 2007; 99:758-61.

  36. Leman ES, Cannon GW, Trock BJ, Sokoll LJ, Chan DW, Mangold L, Partin AW, Getzenberg RH.  EPCA-2:  a highly specific serum marker for prostate cancer.   Urology 2007; 69:714-720.

  37. Makarov DV, Trock BJ, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Walsh PC, Epstein JI, Partin AW.   Updated nomogram to predict pathologic stage of prostate cancer given PSA, clinical stage, and biopsy Gleason score (Partin tables) based on cases from 2000-2005. Urology 2007;69:1095-1101.

  38. Bastian PJ, Palapattu GS, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Rogers CG, Mangold LA, Trock BJ, et al. Prognostic value of preoperative serum cell-free circulating DNA in men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.  Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:5361-5367.

  39. Zheng SL, Sun J, Cheng Y, Li G, Hsu FC, Zhu Y, Chang BL, Liu W, Kim JW, Turner AR, Gielzak M, Yan G, Isaacs SD, Wiley KE, Sauvageot J, Chen HS, Gurganus R, Mangold LA, Trock BJ, Gronberg H, et al.  Association between two unlinked loci at 8q24 and prostate cancer risk among European Americans.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 1525-1533.

  40. Duggan D, Zheng SL, Knowlton M, Benitez D, Dimitrov L, Wiklund F, Robbins C, Isaacs SD, Cheng Y, Li G, Sun J, Chang BL, Marovich L, Wiley KE, Balter K, Stattin P, Adami HO, Gielzak M, Yan G, Sauvageot J, Liu W, Kim JW, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Trock BJ, Partin AW, Walsh PC, Isaacs WB, Gronberg H, Xu J, Carpten JD.  Two genome-wide association studies of aggressive prostate cancer implicate putative prostate tumor suppressor gene DAB2IP.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99:1836-1844. 

  41. Makarov DV, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Carducci MA, Partin AW, Eisenberger MA, Walsh PC, Trock BJ.  The natural history of men managed with deferred androgen deprivation therapy who developed metastatic prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy.  J Urol 2008; 179:156-161; discussion 161-162.

  42. Hoque MH, Begum S, Brait M, Jeronimo C, Zahurak M, Ostrow K, Rosenbaum E, Trock BJ, Westra WH, Schoenberg M, Goodman SN, Sidransky D.  TIMP3 promoter methylation is an independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer.  J Urol 2008; 179(2):743-7.

  43. Bastian PJ, Palapattu GS, Yegnasubramanian S, Rogers CG, Lin X, Mangold LA, Trock BJ, Eisenberger MA, Partin AW, Nelson WG.  CpG island hypermethylation profile in the serum of men with clinically localized and hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer.  J Urol 2008; 179(2):529-34; discussion 534-5.

  44. Trock BJ.  Seminar section introduction: A clinician's guide to statistical methods in urologic oncology. Urol Oncol 2008; 26(3):299.   

  45. Deo DD, Rao AP, Bose SS, Ouhtit A, Baliga SB, Rao SA, Trock BJ, Thouta R, et al.  Differential effects of leptin on the invasive potential of androgen-dependent and independent prostate carcinoma cells.  J Biomed Biotechnol 2008; 2008(163902): 1-8.

  46. Sun J, Chang BL, Isaacs SD, Wiley KE, Wiklund F, Stattin P, Duggan D, Carpten JD, Trock     BJ, Partin AW, Walsh PC, Grönberg H, Xu J, Isaacs WB, Zheng SL.  Cumulative effect of five genetic variants on prostate cancer risk in multiple study populations.   Prostate 2008; 68(12):1257-62. 

  47. Sun J, Zheng SL, Wiklund F, Isaacs SD, Purcell LD, Gao Z, Hsu FC, Kim ST, Liu W, Zhu Y,       Stattin P, Adami HO, Wiley KE, Dimitrov L, Sun J, Li T, Turner AR, Adams TS, Adolfsson J, Johansson JE, Lowey J, Trock BJ, Partin AW, et al.  Evidence of two independent prostate cancer risk-associated loci in HNF1B gene at 17q12.  Nat Genet 2008; 40(10):1153-5. 

  48. Xu J, Isaacs SD, Sun J, Li G, Wiley KE, Zhu , Hsu FC, Wiklund F, Turner AR, Adams TS, Liu W, Trock BJ, Partin AW, Chang B, Walsh PC, Grönberg H, Isaacs W, Zheng S.  Association of prostate cancer risk variants with clinicopathologic characteristics of the disease. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14(18):5819-24.

  49. Trock BJ, Han M, Freedland SJ, Humphreys EB, DeWeese TL, Partin AW, Walsh PC.  Prostate cancer-specific survival following salvage radiotherapy vs. observation in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy:  JAMA 2008; 299(23):2760-9.

  50. Schaeffer EM, Carter HB, Kettermann A, Loeb S, Ferrucci L, Landis P, Trock BJ, Metter EJ. Prostate specific antigen testing among the elderly—when to stop? J Urol 2009; 181: 1606-14.

  51. Yang L, Gaikwad NW, Meza J, Cavalieri EL, Trock BJ, Rogan EG. Novel biomarkers for risk of prostate cancer: Results from a case-control study. Prostate 2009; 69:41-8.

  52. Zhou J, Trock B, Tsangaris TN, et al.   A unique proteolytic fragment of alpha1-antitrypsin is elevated in ductal fluid of breast cancer patient.   Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 Nov 10. [Epub ahead of print]

  53. Trock BJ, Guo CC, Gonzalgo ML, Magheli A, Loeb S, Epstein JI.  Tertiary Gleason patterns and biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy: proposal for a modified Gleason scoring system.  J Urol 2009; 182:1364-70.

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